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5月5日亚太SAT写作原文及分析

2018-11-30 10:42:25 来源:思语整理 阅读

5月5日亚太SAT写作原文及分析

  本次5月SAT考试亚太区写作原文选自2014年发表于New York Times的一篇名为Give the Data to the People 的议论文,整体来讲比较简单,鼓励公开临床试验数据以供科学领域获得更大的发展、造福人类和社会。

  主要论据采用几家行业内领先公开数据的公司作为范例,充分赞扬其大无畏精神和肯定对于科学方面的推动作用,也讨论了对于数据公开的潜在风险的规避和解决,以及对于使用数据的行为规范和约束。整篇文章论述相当严谨,手法比较明显,并且再一次考到了驳论,相信在课堂上强调了多次的驳论以及分析方向一定可以帮助同学们在作文中增加浓墨重彩的一笔。

  文章分析:

  LAST week, Johnson & Johnson announced that it was making all of its clinical trial data available to scientists around the world. It has hired my group, Yale University Open Data Access Project, or YODA, to fully oversee the release of the data. Everything in the company’s clinical research vaults, including unpublished raw data, will be available for independent review.

  This is an extraordinary donation to society, and a reversal of the industry’s traditional tendency to treat data as an asset that would lose value if exposed to public scrutiny.

  段落大意:强生公司宣布公开临床试验数据,包括试验数据库以及未公开原数据这一大壮举开篇。同学们可以通过第二段的“extraordinary”一词看出作者对于此行为的态度是支持的、赞扬的。

  运用手法:example;ethos(It has hired my group…);comparison and contrast(以前是被treat as an asset that would lose value if exposed to public scrtutiny现在却完全公开供independent review);word choice。

  Today, more than half of the clinical trials in the United States, including many sponsored by academic and governmental institutions, are not published within two years of their completion. Often they are never published at all. The unreported results, not surprisingly, are often those in which a drug failed to perform better than a placebo. As a result, evidence-based medicine is, at best, based on only some of the evidence. One of the most troubling implications is that full information on a drug’s effects may never be discovered or released.

  Even when studies are published, the actual data are usually not made available. End users of research — patients, doctors and policy makers — are implicitly told by a single group of researchers to “take our word for it.” They are often forced to accept the report without the prospect of other independent scientists’ reproducing the findings — a violation of a central tenet of the scientific method.

  段落大意:叙述曾经数据不公开的时代在临床研究遇到的种种问题,分为两段分别讨论两大问题:临床研究未公开造成药物证据不足;即使公开研究,但真实数据触不可及导致实际应用中缺乏科学印证。

  运用手法:word choice(troubling,never be discovered,violation 等);fact;classification;emotional appeal(引发谴责、不满等)。

  To be fair, the decision to share data is not easy. Companies worry that their competitors will benefit, that lawyers will take advantage, that incompetent scientists will misconstrue the data and come to mistaken conclusions. Researchers feel ownership of the data and may be reluctant to have others use it. So Johnson & Johnson, as well as companies like GlaxoSmithKline and Medtronic that have made more cautious moves toward transparency, deserve much credit. The more we share data, however, the more we find that many of these problems fail to materialize.

  段落大意:先陈述researchers不愿意公开数据的原因,并用强生、GSK、Medtronic三家公司进行反驳,最后一句话道出实质:越多分享,越少问题。

  运用手法:驳论

  In 2011, YODA struck a deal with Medtronic to release all the data on one of its products — a device that stimulates the production of bone. At the time, questions had been raised about the device’s safety, including whether it caused cancer, and about the conflicts of interests of some of the company’s researchers. Medtronic made the unusual decision to respond to the debate by releasing the device’s data for independent review. We commissioned and then published two independent reviews of the data, and now have made them globally available.

  Interestingly, the reviews produced somewhat conflicting results. One found that the device was no better than a bone graft and might be associated with a slight increase in cancer, while the other found that the device was effective and the cancer risk inconclusive. To us these differences reinforce the value of open science: now the data are out there for further study.

  段落大意:举了YODA和Medtronic曾经研究的一款产品的例子,公开数据后得到两种截然不同的研究结果,却都是对于科学开放进步有着巨大贡献

  分析手法:example;emotional appeal(引发责任感、坚定信念)。

  This program doesn’t mean that just anyone can gain access to the data without disclosing how they intend to use it. We require those who want the data to submit a proposal and identify their research team, funding and any conflicts of interest. They have to complete a short course on responsible conduct and sign an agreement that restricts them to their proposed research question. Most important, they must agree to share whatever they find. And we exclude applicants who seek data for commercial or legal purposes. Our intent is not to be tough gatekeepers, but to ensure that the data are used in a transparent way and contribute to overall scientific knowledge.

  段落大意:获取数据并非毫无监管,列举了种种方式如何限制和规范研究人员对于数据的使用。

  分析手法:classification;fact;emotional appeal(消除读者对于数据公开的疑虑,加强信心)。

  There are many benefits to this kind of sharing. It honors the contributions of the subjects and scientists who participated in the research. It is proof that an organization, whether it is part of industry or academia, wants to play a role as a good global citizen. It demonstrates that the organization has nothing to hide. And it enables scientists to use the data to learn new ways to help patients. Such an approach can even teach a company like Johnson & Johnson something it didn’t know about its own products.

  段落大意:总结全文,综述数据公开的好处。

  分析手法:word choice(benefits;honors;contributions等)。

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